Introduction page Battles and campaigns 1450 to 1697 Army composition
main conflicts 1450-1697 Maps of Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth Army's development 1450-1697


czambul, cambul - Name for tartar forces sent on raid. Go back

dance of the tartars - The description used by the Poles for the elusive attack and feint tactics the Tartars employed in battle. Go back

kos, kosz - Polish for a Tartar base set up during an invasion from where smaller raiding parties leave and return with prisoners and booty. Go back

lan - measure of land area, approximately 17 hectares. Go back

Lithuania - During most of this period, particularly in the 17th Century, the Lithuanian army was little different in organisation or dress than the Polish army, with its size being typically around one third of the Polish forces. Especially earlier, they would have contained significant numbers of Tartars and used their looser tactics. However the Lithuanian nobility were in many ways more Polish than the Poles and they had a reputation for being wild. Go back

obrona potoczna - Polish for current defence force. It was the main system of defence against the Tartars intil it was replaced by a small standing army. Go back

pospolite ruszenie - Polish for the mass levy. Go back

sejm - Polish parliament. Go back

tabor - Fortified wagon train, often used in the open plains of the East by Polish and Cossack armies. Go back

White Ruthenia - Region east of Poland and Lithuania towards Moscow. In Polish called Bialorus meaning white russia - now it is the country Belarus. Go back

Wilno - Vilinus or Wilno in Polish. Capital of Lithuania, past and present. Go back